What is information technology (IT)?

Information technology (IT) is a term that describes the processes and strategies for using technology to provide business solutions on a broad scale.

Often, the term IT is used to reference the department that oversees the installation and maintenance of computer network systems within a company. This is the side of IT that most professionals are familiar with — the experts that get called in when there are computer issues that need to be fixed. But the scope of IT in business goes well beyond general repairs.

IT encompasses essentially every aspect of computing within business. This includes the study, conceptualisation, development, execution and support of information systems. IT may also refer to the systems themselves, specifically software applications and the physical hardware on which they run. Finally, IT also includes IT governance, which ensures that information technologies are being correctly utilised to help organisations reach their goals while effectively managing IT risks.

As such, IT has a very broad application across industries and organisations; essentially every business today includes some IT components, even if they do not field a separate IT department.

IT has been an essential aspect of business since the early days of the digital age. However, as technology increases in complexity, so do the various components of IT. Today, IT is multi-structured and intricate, and includes technologies such as telecommunications, security, cloud computing, data centres, networks, storage, computers and servers.

What are IT roles and responsibilities?

Just as IT is an umbrella term that includes a range of systems, processes, strategies and resources, there are many different roles and responsibilities associated with information technology. These include the following:

  • IT director, CIO/CTO or vice president
  • Systems engineering manager
  • IT project manager
  • Business analyst
  • Network administrator
  • Hardware technician
  • Help desk analyst
  • Help desk support

Modern business runs on information technology. From incorporating management information systems to help gather, analyse and report valuable data, to ensuring the correct functionality of essential communications equipment in an increasingly remote workforce, IT has a hand in everything. And those organisations that are able to effectively employ IT across departments and use cases are gaining an undeniable competitive edge.

The current push towards increased IT has also resulted in increased IT responsibilities. The following are new and upcoming IT needs that businesses must be capable of addressing:

Increased mobile usage

More organisations are adopting BYOB policies in the workplace. Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent quarantine forced many businesses to adopt remote-work policies, taking on some or all of the responsibility of managing mobile devices, wireless hotspots and roaming abilities for employees.

Reliable video hosting

Quickly supplanting traditional conference calling, and precipitated by the need to facilitate face-to-face communication during the global pandemic, digital video conferencing has become increasingly common in business. IT must ensure proper network bandwidth to promote effective video hosting.

Off-site data management

Rather than host large 'server farms' in-house, many organisations now work with third-party cloud vendors to store their data. IT must be able to work effectively with these vendors to ensure data security and usability.

Effective data processing

As data-collection capabilities improve, the amount of available data increases exponentially. Organisations depend on IT to process large amounts of data, incorporating significant processing power, advanced software and analytical insight.

Because IT's mandate is to manage and optimise essentially every aspect of computing within business, the benefits it brings to the table are nearly limitless. Any business advantage offered by digital technology can be viewed as a benefit of IT. That said, these benefits usually fall within the following categories:

Improved coordination and communication

Software-based communication tools and organisational platforms make it possible for large numbers of teams and individuals to coordinate effectively, establish processes and prioritise tasks.

Better agility and productivity

Improved communication and technology support allows businesses to respond more quickly to changes within their markets. Additionally, automation and machine learning facilitate better product development with reduced turnaround time, allowing organisations to do more with less.

Increased ROI, savings and revenue streams

Outsourcing to cloud vendors significantly reduces the investment costs of many IT services. Automation reduces the need for surplus staff. Improved productivity means more returns in shorter amounts of time. Finally, IT advances (such as e-commerce stores) represent new revenue streams for many already established companies.

Optimal data storage

Legacy data-storage solutions are often hard to manage and tend to result in data silos that make it difficult to access essential information. IT advances, such as cloud-based data storage, organise and allocate data, making it available to authorised users from anywhere in the world.

Heightened data security

Even a small data breach can end up costing a business millions of dollars in lost or corrupted data, and that is to say nothing of the reputational damage organisations suffer when they fail to protect their customers' information. The right IT approach improves data security, ensuring that every system is up to date with the most-recent security measures.

Enhanced customer and employee experience

Whether serving customers or employees, the main function of IT is the same: to facilitate better, more-effective processes to increase user satisfaction.

In short, an organisation that embraces effective IT solutions will see improvements across the board.

One of the most difficult aspects of IT is its inclusiveness. IT extends across the physical hardware and through the software that runs on it.


IT software consists of applications and systems software. Applications include email servers, web servers, databases, transactional systems and customer management systems. System software includes operating systems, boot programs, basic input/output systems and device drivers. IT software consists of the programs, in all of their forms, that run on IT hardware.


Hardware consists of the physical devices that run the software. Hardware can also be abstracted, incorporating virtualisation and cloud computing to meet application requirements. Hardware includes input/output devices, processing devices and storage. Hardware servers communicate with one another through computer networks and via the Internet.

Within the last decade or so, business IT has experienced a revolution in the form of cloud computing. The most fundamental difference between cloud and on-prem IT is where it is located. As the name suggests, on-premises IT is fully based on site, managed locally on the business' own hardware. Cloud software is hosted on the vendor's server where it can be accessed remotely at any time and from anywhere through a secure Internet connection.

What are the pros and cons of on-premises IT?

For smaller businesses with less-complex IT needs, maintaining an in-house solution may be the easier approach. Likewise, because on-premises IT excludes outside vendors, the organisation in question maintains complete control over every aspect. They have the final say and responsibility over security and uptime, and they tend to see a lower total cost of ownership.

However, in most cases, these benefits are offset by certain disadvantages. Initial CapEx for on-premises solutions can be extremely high, and ongoing maintenance and repairs bring with them their own expenses. Additionally, on-premises IT means longer implementation times. Simply put, on-prem IT demands that the businesses themselves handle every aspect of IT on their own, as well as account for any and all associated costs. This can lead to an increased need for IT personnel, increased installation, maintenance and repair costs, and make it difficult to scale effectively as the business grows.

What are the pros and cons of cloud computing?

Cloud-based IT is seeing increasingly widespread use throughout essentially every industry and market. This is because cloud computing offers a number of clear advantages over on-premises options.

Cloud IT allows businesses to use a pay-as-you-go model, paying only for the cloud resources they use and easily maintaining established budgets. Organisations can also free up professionals to focus on other essential tasks and considerations, rather than forcing them to invest their valuable time into maintenance, repairs, security and IT management. Cloud IT solutions are also extremely scalable; instead of having to purchase, install and configure new IT hardware to account for business growth—or deactivate and remove hardware in the event of negative growth—organisations can work with their cloud vendor to scale available resources to meet business needs.

As for the downsides to cloud computing, they are few and far between. These include the risks of sub-par cloud security and undependable cloud accessibility. When a company chooses to work with a cloud provider, they rely on the provider to secure their data and ensure that their service meets minimum uptime requirements. That said, given the increasingly competitive cloud landscape, cloud vendors know that their continued existence relies heavily on their ability to meet client expectations and take their responsibilities accordingly.

More than ever before, organisations need reliable management solutions. ServiceNow provides those solutions.

ServiceNow has long been a global leader in IT management and related fields. IT Service Management from ServiceNow makes this expertise easily available to you, allowing modern businesses to increase their productivity, future-proof their IT and improve the employee experience.

Built on the award-winning Now Platform, IT Service Management provides powerful tools and resources, easily accessible through a single, cloud-based system. Use built-in best practices and AI-assisted recommendations. Automatically assign tasks and track progress. Employ virtual agents and automate resolution steps for common IT requests. Enjoy complete, real-time visibility into every aspect of your IT processes and services. Create detailed, automation-enhanced workflows to keep processes and individuals on track. And do it all while remaining fully available to employees and users on the go, with the powerful Now Platform mobile app.

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